Geography - Glossary



  1. Adaptation: the process of change by which a species becomes better suited to its environment.
  2. Advancements: the process of helping something/somebody to make progress or succeed; the progress that is made. For example, the advancements in the field of science.
  3. Afforestation: the process of planting areas of land with trees in order to form a forest.  
  4. Analyze: to examine the nature or structure of something, especially by separating it into its parts, to understand or explain it. For example, Researchers analyze the data collected in detail to make conclusions.
  5. Bilateral: ?involving two groups of people or two countries.
  6. Biodiversity: the existence of a large number of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment.
  7. Characteristics: typical feature or quality that something/somebody has. For example, all human languages share some common characteristics.
  8. Classify:  to arrange something in groups according to features that they have in common.
  9. Climate: the regular pattern of weather conditions of a particular place.  
  10. Collaborative: involving, or done by, several people or groups of people working together.
  11. Consequences: a result of something that has happened, especially an unpleasant result.
  12. Conurbations: a large area where towns have grown and joined together, often around a city.
  13. Critique: an act of judging the good and bad qualities of something. For example, to critique a poem.
  14. Deforestation: the act of cutting down or burning the trees in an area.
  15. Diversity: a range of many people or things that are very different from each other.  
  16. Erosion: the process by which the surface of something is gradually destroyed through the action of wind, rain, etc.
  17. Evaluate:  to form an opinion of the amount, value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully. For example, to critically evaluate whether a new technology will be useful or not.
  18. Evidence: the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true. For example, researchers have found clear scientific evidence of a link between exposure to sun and skin cancer.
  19. Explore: to look at (something) in a careful way to learn more about it: to study or analyze (something). For example, researchers are exploring how language is acquired by children.
  20. Flora and fauna: to a collection of plant and animal specifies in a given geographic location.
  21. Formative Assessments:  a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.  The general goal of formative assessment is to collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it’s happening. For example, exit slips, discussions etc.
  22. Geopolitical: connected with the political relations between countries and groups of countries in the world, as influenced by their geography.
  23. Geospatial: relating to information that is associated with a particular location.  
  24. GIS: A spatial system that creates, manages, analyzes, and maps all types of data.
  25. Global Warming: the increase in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere that is caused by the increase of particular gases, especially carbon dioxide.
  26. GPS: a system by which signals are sent from satellites to a special device, used to show the position of a person or thing on the surface of the earth very accurately (the abbreviation for global positioning system).
  27. Illustrate: to use pictures, photographs, diagrams, etc. in a book, etc.
  28. Immigration: the process of coming to live permanently in a different country from the one you were born in; the number of people who do this.
  29. Industrialization: the process of developing industries in a country or an area.
  30. Inflation: a general rise in the prices of services and goods in a particular country, resulting in a fall in the value of money; the rate at which this happens.
  31. Inquire: to investigate, look into. For example, students will inquire the reasons for downfall of Mughal Empire.
  32. Interconnection: connection to or with similar things.
  33. Interdependent:  that depend on each other; consisting of parts that depend on each other.
  34. Interpret: the particular way in which something is understood or explained. An explanation or way of explaining.
  35. Investigate: to find out information and facts about a subject or problem by study or research.  
  36. Landscape: everything you can see when you look across a large area of land, especially in the country.
  37. Megapolis: A megalopolis sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, city cluster or supercity, is a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.
  38. Mind Map: a diagram that presents information with a central idea in the middle and connected ideas arranged around it
  39. Organogram: a diagram of the structure of an organization, especially a large business, showing the relationships between all the jobs in it
  40. Plate tectonics: the movements of the large sheets of rock (called plates) that form the earth’s surface; the scientific study of these movements.  
  41. Predict: to say that something will happen in the future. For example, economists predict a bright future for the businesses in the next financial year.
  42. Scarcity:  shortage of resources.
  43. Settlements: a place where people have come to live and make their homes, especially where few or no people lived before.
  44. Summative Assessments: are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. For example, end of unit exam or final term exam.
  45. Sustainability: the use of natural products and energy in a way that does not harm the environment.
  46. Urbanization: the process in which more and more people start to live and work in towns and cities rather than in the country.
  47. Venn Diagram:  a picture showing sets (= groups of things that have a shared quality) as circles that cross over each other, to show which qualities the different sets have in common.
  48. Weather: the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, such as the temperature, and if there is wind, rain, sun, etc.
  49. Weathering:  the action of sun, rain, or wind on rocks, making them change shape or colour.