History - Glossary

History – 6-8 Curriculum



  1. Advancements:  the process of helping something/somebody to make progress or succeed; the progress that is made. For example, the advancements in the field of science.
  2. Adverse: negative and unpleasant; not likely to produce a good result for example adverse change/circumstances/weather conditions.
  3. Analyze: to examine the nature or structure of something, especially by separating it into its parts, to understand or explain it. For example, Researchers analyze the data collected in detail to make conclusions.
  4. Cause: the person or thing that makes something happen. For example, unemployment is a major cause of poverty.  
  5. Characteristics:  typical feature or quality that something/somebody has. For example, all human languages share some common characteristics.
  6. Chronological: (of a number of events) arranged in the order in which they happened. For example, facts should be presented in chronological order.
  7. Citizen: a person who has the legal right to belong to a particular country. For example, the primary responsibility of a state is to protect its citizens.
  8. Citizenship: the state of being a citizen and accepting the responsibilities of it. For example, the role of the education must be to prepare young people for citizenship.
  9. Civics: a social science that deals with the rights and duties of citizens. 
  10. Civil Rights: the rights that every person in a society has, for example to be treated equally, to be able to vote, work, etc. whatever their sex, race, or religion.
  11. Civilization: a society, its culture and its way of life during a particular period of time or in a particular part of the world. For example, civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome.
  12. Community: all the people who live in a particular area, country, etc. when talked about as a group.
  13. Consequences: a result of something that has happened, especially an unpleasant result.
  14. Convention: the way in which something is done that most people in a society expect and consider to be polite or the right way to do it.
  15. Cradle: cradle of something the place where something important began. For example, Greece, the cradle of Western civilization.
  16. Critique: an act of judging the good and bad qualities of something. For example, to critique a poem.
  17. Democracy: a system of government in which the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives.
  18. Effect: a change that somebody/something causes in somebody/something else; a result. For example, modern farming methods can have a bad effect on the environment.
  19. Enquiry: the act of asking questions or collecting information about somebody/something. For example, a scientific enquiry.
  20. Evaluate: to form an opinion of the amount, value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully. For example, to critically evaluate whether a new technology will be useful or not.
  21. Evidence: the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that something is true. For example, researchers have found clear scientific evidence of a link between exposure to sun and skin cancer.
  22. Explore: to look at (something) in a careful way to learn more about it: to study or analyze (something). For example, researchers are exploring how language is acquired by children.
  23. Flow chart: a diagram that shows the connections between the different stages of a process or parts of a system.
  24. Formative Assessments: a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.  The general goal of formative assessment is to collect detailed information that can be used to improve instruction and student learning while it’s happening. For example, exit slips, discussions etc.
  25. Industrialization: the process of developing industries in a country or an area.
  26. Infer: to form (an opinion) from evidence: to reach (a conclusion) based on known facts.  For example, to infer how certain changes will affect ordinary citizens.
  27. Inquire: to investigate, look into. For example, students will inquire the reasons for downfall of Mughal Empire.
  28. Integrity: the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles.
  29. Interpretation: the particular way in which something is understood or explained. An explanation or way of explaining.
  30. Investigate: to find out information and facts about a subject or problem by study or research.
  31. Landmarks: a building or a place that is very important because of its history, and that should be preserved
  32. Organogram: a diagram of the structure of an organization, especially a large business, showing the relationships between all the jobs in it
  33. Patriotism: love of your country and the desire to defend it.
  34. Perseverance: the quality of continuing to try to achieve a particular aim despite difficulties. For example, people showed great perseverance in the face of difficulty.
  35. Predict: to say that something will happen in the future. For example, economists predict a bright future for the businesses in the next financial year.
  36. Primary sources: A primary source is a firsthand account of an event that happened, data from a study, or an original work. Here are some examples of primary sources: Photographs of historical events, news articles, autobiographies by historical or famous people. 
  37. Rationale: the principles or reasons which explain a particular decision, course of action, belief, etc.
  38. Reform: change that is made to a social system, an organization, etc. in order to improve or correct it.
  39. Responsibilities: the civil duties that each citizen is supposed to fulfill. It is believed that these responsibilities help make the country a peaceful and suitable place to live in.
  40. Rights: the benefits and the allowances that a certain governing body owes to the citizens, residents, and the people whom they govern. Usually, these rights are found to exist in democracies, and in such cases, they are protected by the constitution.
  41. Secondary sources: Secondary sources were created by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you’re researching. For a historical research project, secondary sources are generally scholarly books and articles. A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may contain pictures, quotes, or graphics of primary sources.
  42. Settlements: a place where people have come to live and make their homes, especially where few or no people lived before.
  43. Summative Assessments: are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. For example, end of unit exam or final term exam.
  44. T-chart: Graphic organizer, shaped like a “T,” used to separate information into two categories. A T chart can be used to compare and contrast two things, to list advantages and disadvantages, to separate facts from opinions, etc.
  45. Timeline:  a horizontal line that is used to represent time, with the past towards the left and the future towards the right.
  46. Venn Diagram:  a picture showing sets (= groups of things that have a shared quality) as circles that cross over each other, to show which qualities the different sets have in common.
  47. Visualize: to form a picture of somebody something in your mind.